Jan Przybyszewski, Maciej Malawski, Sabina Lichołai

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by binding to specific mRNAs, inhibiting their translation. They play a critical role in regulating various biological processes and are implicated in many diseases, including cardiovascular, oncological, gastrointestinal diseases, and viral infections. Computational methods that can identify potential miRNA–mRNA interactions from raw data use one-dimensional miRNA–mRNA duplex representations and simple sequence encoding techniques, which may limit their performance.